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[books: HARNESSED, THE VISION REVOLUTION, THE BRAIN FROM 25,000 FEET]
[columns: ChangiziBlog (hub), Discover, Forbes, WIRED, Psychology Today, Huff, Science 2.0 ] [G+, Twitter, FB page ] [Contact]

Summary, Education, Employment, Publications, Grants, Press, Talks, Courses, Details

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

MARK CHANGIZI

2AI LABS

Theoretical Neuroscience and Vision




RECENT PRESS

This View of Life, Tech-Inspired Biology.


Parade Magazine, Faye Flam: I, Color vision, and II, O2Amp.


VICE, Lawrence De Geest: Wallisch and Harnessed.


Dana Foundation, Stanislas Dehaene: The case for nature-harnessing, for writing.


National Geographic's Brain Games: I talk on air,
and in this supporting teaser piece, about illusions and forward-facing eyes.
(Scroll down about half way.)



TED: Pruney fingers, A gripping story



ABC's This Could Be Big, with Bill Weir:



NPR's Science Friday:
.


Discovery Channel's Daily Planet:
(Pruney finger discovery at 2:50, and O2Amp at 3:50.)
.


EMONOME, Emon Hassan:
.


New Evidence for Pruney Rain-Treads.

TIME, Maia Szalavitz: Understanding Why Music Moves Us.

H. C. Park: A review of Vision Revolution, Korean.

NOWOSCI: Tango in the Intimate Space.

Crooked Timber, John Holbo: Why can't we say what color our skin is?

Mental Floss, Matt Soniak: Pruney fingers are rain treads.

Faenasphere: New review of Harnessed.

Virtually Speaking Science, Jennifer Ouellette: Talking science with Ouellette.

National Geographic: Illusions of the Future.

Express, David Bradley: Pruney Finger Facts.

Descopera, Marius Comper: Humanity 3.0.

The Science Bulletin, Roland Arriza: Why do fingers wrinkle when they get wet?

Ulrike Feigl: Emotions are colorful.

Yale Scientific, Grace Cao: Review of Vision Revolution.

Clickideia: Why do we have ten fingers?

Guru, Kim Lacey: Why do fingers get wrinkly in the bath?

MISC, Robert Bolton: Simple Truths

New Scientist: I review Seth Horowitz's Universal Sense.

VISION REVOLUTION appears in German translation.
Two early -- good -- reviews: Tabula rasa, and ORF.

io9, George Dvorsky: 9 Overlooked Techs

LiveScience, Natalie Wolchover: Spiral Illusion

Beautiful Brain, Noah Hutton: Art and Neuroscience: a State of the Union

io9: How Gödel Saved Me from Physics

TIME, Maia Szalavitz: Interview on color, music, and o2Amp.

The first eyewear for viewing people: O2 Amp, the story,
MSNBC, Sciencebase, Tech Rev, Betabeat, PopSci,
ExameInformatica, Smithsonian, LiveScience/Yahoo,
WIRED, NZ Herald, Investors, DesignBoom,
Mobiledia, Discovery, PSFK, Neoteo.
Earthsky, Good, Wissenundkonzepte, Stuff,
Forbes, Actualidad, Geek, Gizmodo,
PSFK, Neatorama, TIME, Oprah, BBC.


New review of Vision Revolution.

MSNBC, Dylan Ratigan: Interview about Head Games.

Earthsky, Jorge Salazar: Music and Harnessed.

Benchfly, Alan Marnett: Harnessed interview || Getting the big idea

Mediapocalypse, Zac Shaw: Harnessed review.

The Economist, Benjamin Sutherland: Prophets of Zoom.

Radiolab: Color radio.

Phil Inquirer, Faye Flam: Color evolution

Institute for the Future, Bradley Kreit: Smart Pain.

Principal on-screen science host of Discovery Channel's Head Games.

Life's Little Mysteries, Natalie Wolchover: What if We Had Six Fingers?

Scientific American, Jason G. Goldman: Review of Vision Revolution

Science News, Bruce Bower: Baboons get harnessed

Science Illustrated, Alice Orszulok: Cities and Brains

Mesh Cities: Cities and Brains

Idaho Statesman, Katy Moeller: What is 2AI?

Discover Magazine: Music and Language: Instinct or Invention?

Philadelphia Inquirer: Baboons, Nature-Harnessed

Technology Review, John Pavlus: Google's Glasses

Daily Beast, Andrew Sullivan: E-Book Amnesia.

Discover Magazine: Are we "meant" to have language and music?

TIME, Maia Szalavitz: The trouble with e-books.

Brain Bright, Dr. G.: Harnessed and the arts.

Skeptically Speaking, Desiree Schell: VisRev, and Superpowers.

Estadao, Daniel Piza: Among "Best of the Year" books. The Art of Seeing, Review of VisRev.

Discover Magazine: What happened to LEGO?

MSNBC, Jeremy Hsu: MSNBC.

The Scientist, Richard P. Grant: Review of Harnessed.

Harrison's Hangout: Harnessing and the future (5:30 in).

Telegraph, Roger Highfield: LEGO's Missing Mojo.

Le Monde de l'intelligence, Sabine Casalonga: Les limites de l'intelligence.

WIRED, Samuel Arbesman: Biology's Lego Laws.

Masters of Media, Sjoerd Tuinema: My talk in Amsterdam.

Psychology Today, Julie Sedivy: HARNESSED among juicy books of 2011.

New Scientist: HARNESSED makes Top Ten of 2011.

J Behav Optom, Paul Harris: New review of Vision Revolution.

Discover Magazine: Bursting the bubble of human intelligence.

Discover Magazine: We're nowhere near artificial brains.

Discover Magazine: Sagan, Patron Saint of Science Monks.

Sciam MIND, Frank Bures: Review of Harnessed.

ScienceBase, David Bradley: Vision Revolution and adaptation.

Library Journal, Cynthia Knight: Library review.

Wall Street Journal, Daniel Levitin: Nothing funny about music.

Euroscientist, David Bradley: Science of Sounds.

Duke Chronicle, Mary Hoch: Human Brains Have No Special Sauce.

FOX News, Natalie Wolchover: An Evolutionary Wrinkle.

Blog Talk Radio, Garrison Leykam: Interview on Harnessed.

NY Times, Anahad O'Connor: Pruney Finger Rain Treads.

Salt Lake Tribune, David Burger: Interview on Harnessed.

Innovation News Daily, Jeremy Hsu: Bio-inspired rain treads.

Gawker, Maureen O'Connor: Wrinkled Fingers

EDGE, Frank Wilczek: Nobel Laureate favorably reviews Harnessed

New Savanna, Bill Benzon: Reading Changizi on Color Vision

Discover Mag: Review of HARNESSED.

KatiePhD: Strange Overtones.

Eureka: Press release for HARNESSED.

Wall Street Journal: Masters of Distraction.

New Scientist, Bob Holmes: The sounds of movement.

Science and Religion: What Is Nature-Harnessing?

Huff/AOL: Is Language Technology?

Forbes, David DiSalvo: Reviews HARNESSED.

Sciam, Jason G. Goldman: Highway Neuroscience.

Something You Should Know, Mike Carruthers:
Why Humans Read, Color & Pruney Fingers.

Something You Should Know, Mike Carruthers: Why Humans Read.

WNYC, Soundcheck, John Schaefer: Music: Transforming Ape to Man.

Huff/AOL: What to do about crazy-ridiculous research?.

Great experience at SciFoo11.

Leonardo Reviews, Richard Kade: Book review.

MSNBC, Nidhi Subbaraman: CosmicLog on my HARNESSED.

Hear It Now, Scott Prebys: NPR Radio interview on HARNESSED.

InnovationNewsDaily, Jeremy Hsu: The future of humans, and harnessing.

BrainPickings, Maria Popova: Discusses HARNESSED.

SciAm: Excerpt from HARNESSED.

Wired, print: Harnessed, and how apes became human.

Late Night Live, Phillip Adams: Harnessed interview.

BBE: My pruney-rain-treads paper, free for a time.
See also Nature, NPR, MSNBC, PBS News Hour, Discovery. Washington Post, Innovation News Daily, NY Times.

Radio Slovenia, Luka Hvalc: Interview about VisRev.

Sciam, Douglas Fox: Brain evolution and the limits of intelligence. [podcast]

WSJ, Pia Catton: Interview about HARNESSED.

Twit TV, Dr. Kiki Science Hour: I talk about what's next, after humans.

My 10-minute-shot at explaining the Best Illusion of 2011.
See also LiveScience's illusion gallery.

Bill Benzon, author of Beethoven's Anvil, on the trouble with academia, and me:
"Mark Changizi...one of the most brilliant and creative psychologists of his generation"

Ireland Radio's Jonathan McCrea interviews me about VisRev (40:30 in).

My eight-year-old remakes chess (Wired UK GeekDad). The photos!

Harnessed, in France: InternetActu.

My new blog at Forbes, "Unconvoluted".

Vision Revolution reviewed at Brain Pickings.

No, children really are the future (Wired).

Andrew Sullivan posts on my "Human 3.0" piece in The Atlantic.

A piece in Fastcodesign by John Pavlus.

A piece in Technology Review by Christopher Mims.

What I'd ask Obama, concerning funding in academia. In Live Science.

Humans, Version 3.0 (Seed Magazine).

Forbes piece on social media and creativity by Meghan Casserly.

3D Movies and Evolution, Osha Gray Edison piece at Forbes.

Ancient Optical Illusion, Mother Nature Network.

Makeup and Color Vision, story by Chistine Ottery at Scientific American.

Why Our Eyes Face Forward, interview at EarthSky (22min, 30sec).

Why the Web Won't Be Smart (Seed Magazine).

Nana 10 story by Yorem Sorek on origins of writing.

VisRev made "Best Books of 2010" by Dan Piza in Brazil's Estadão  

Dan Kaminsky's DanKam colorblind app (and VisRev): Forbes, CNet.  

What Is It Like to be Oliver Sacks? (New Scientist).  

Illusions and magic, in Metrolic.  

EarthSky interviews me about why we see illusions.  

Invisible Gorilla author Dan Simons reviews my book.  

My interview at Neuroanthropology.  

Scripps News story on my nude-colored hospital gowns.  

The more readable science writers. Scientists or journalists?  

My interview with Jorge Salazar at EarthSky.  

Vis Rev in New Scientist story on the best books of 2009.  

Color research discussed in Road & Track.  

Harnessed discussed in special issue of Les Cahiers.  

Cyclopses, video games, and The Vis Rev on Kotaku  

Oliver Sacks mentions my origins-of-writing research in The New Yorker.  

"Is 'red' the same to all creatures?" My color research on CNN.  

VR reviewed on Diffusion Radio by Ian Woolf.  

Illusion research discussed on BrainBlogger.  

Great review of VR in The Psychologist (pay wall)
by Mind Hacks author Tom Stafford:
"...unusual in the range and quality of his ideas, and the
clarity and humour with which he can lay them out."  


And great review of VR in Quarterly Review of Biology (pay wall)
by Adrian G. Dyer: " ...interesting and challenging new theories."  


Podcast interview at ScriptPhD, and a guest piece on non-genius.  

Color research in the Irish Times.  

A story about my color research in Professional Lighting Design.  

Interviewed at Neuronarrative about VR.  

Jeremy Hsu LiveScience / msNBC story about my highlight
piece on cats with mouse bodies.  


Some recent stories on harnessing our oximetric color-vision eyes for hospital health:
BoingBoing, Times Union (video), Troy Record,
LA Times, Toronto Sun, AOL News, Ratschlag24,
Diagnostic Imaging, Times Colony, Scripps News, Press release,
(See ChangiziBlog for the full story,
and also this piece at SB I wrote about it.)  


My highlight piece in Brain, Behavior and Evolution:
Neuroscientist's Embarrassment: AI's Opportunity.  


Interview about The Vision Rev on Noah Hutton's The Beautiful Brain.  

Letters shaped like nature, in March issue of Sciam Mind.  

Beautiful brains at TheBeautifulBrain, by Sam McDougle.  

"You Are a Supercolony." Telegraph piece.  

VR in Quo  

Harnessing our oximetric eyes in medicine in Forbes, Matthew Herper's column.  

"Going Green with Reading: Dehaene's Reading in the Brain." Telegraph piece.  

"Do the aliens in 'Avatar' realise they are blue?" Telegraph piece.  

"Darwin: 201 years old and still not fully appreciated by evolutionists." Telegraph piece.  

"Why are 3D movies like 'Avatar' such fun?" My first piece as the new science blogger at the Telegraph.  

My 'writing' research discussed in two reviews of Stanislas Dehaene's Reading in the Brain: NY Times, WSJ,  

Interviewed in Benchfly.  

Interviewed on LateNightLive, ABC Radio National.  

Illusion story in Welt.  

Origins of music in The Atlantic.  

Origins of writing research in The Atlantic.  

Discussed in Stanislas Dehaene's SciAm interview on his Reading in the Brain  

My interview with Iran's Mullahs in Jam-e-Jam.  

Discussed in Jonah Lehrer's Barnes and Noble review of Dehaene.  

On the The Lionel Radio / Air America talking about THE VISION REVOLUTION.  

A piece in Nana (English version) by Yorum Sorek on your sexy navel.  

A story in BoingBoing about my color research, and how Hugh Hefner owes me.  

An interview on This Week in Science on THE VISION REVOLUTION  

An interview in JamEJam, an Iranian paper (in English).  

A story by Cari Nierenberg on illusions in ABC News.  

My piece on music in Scientific American.  

New paper in the journal Complexity on the brain-like organization of cities!  
LiveScience (Yahoo News), Reason, The Atlantic, Sciam, Open Mag,
io9, Technovelgy, Digital City, ScientificBlogging, RPI press release, the paper

City-brain research featured on Discovery Channel's
(Sept 16, 2009) Daily Planet TV show (7 min and 30 sec in)...
 



go to all press  

                                                                                                                       


SELECT PRESS STORIES (all press stories)  

GENERAL: SciAm, Rensselaer Mag, Benchfly, Jam-e-Jam, This Week in Sci, Lionel Show, LateNightLive
HARNESSED: Neuroanthro, Soundcheck, Dr. Kiki's, WSJ, Late Night Live. Sciam (excerpt), NewSci, Disc, Wired.
THE VISION REVOLUTION: WSJ , SciAm MIND, B & N Spotlight, Pub Weekly (starred), New Scientist.
ILLUSIONS OF THE FUTURE: NY Times, Live Science, SciAm, SciAm Mind, FOX News, Newsweek(ru), 3sat TV.
EVOLUTION OF WRITING: Newsweek, Telegraph, MSNBC, USA Today, The New Yorker. Cahiers de Sci et Vie.
COLOR FOR SKIN: Time Magazine, Financial Times, Reuters, New Scientist, ABC News, SciAm, Discover, Die Welt.
DICTIONARIES FOR BRAINS: SciAm, Tendencias. THIRSTY VISION: TICS, The Psychologist, Science Magazine.
FORWARD-FACING EYES: Science Daily, Real Science, Spiegel. EYE COMPUTATION: WIRED, ScienceAGogo.
BRAIN-SHAPED CITIES: Yahoo, Reason, Daily Planet TV, Digital City. WHY ADVERTISING WORKS: Live Science.
VISUAL OXIMETRY: LA Times, Toronto Sun, AOL News. BRAIN EVOLUTION: Live Science, Le Monde, Sciam.
PRUNEY FINGERS Nature, NPR, WashPost. # LIMBS AND DIGITS Life's Little Mysteries. LEGOS LAWS WIRED.

   
(with and without voice-over)                                                                                                                                

    VISION
  1. O2AMP: Eyewear technology enhancing perception of health and emotion. || Company news: a b c d e f g h i j k ... ||
  2. EVOLUTION of COLOR: Bare skin, blood, and why we see in color || 1 VR news: a b c d e f g h i j k ... ||
  3. BINOCULARITY: "X-ray vision" and why we have forward-facing eyes || 1 2 VR news: a b c d e f g h i j k ||
  4. ILLUSIONS: Perceiving-the-present: a unifying theory of illusions || 1 2 3 4 25k VR news: TED a b c d e f g h i j k ... ||
  5. LETTER SHAPE: Natural scenes drive the shapes of visual signs || 1 VR news: a b c d e f g h i j k ... ||
  6. VISUAL COMPUTATION: Harnessing your visual system to carry out computations || 1 VR news: a b c d e f g h i j k ... ||
  7. WHY ADVERTS WORK: Mere exposure, and why seeing rationally affects what we like || 1 news: a b c d e f g ||
  8. VISUAL OXIMETRY: Harnessing color vision for oximetry || 1 news: a vid b c d e f g h i j k ||
  9. THIRST & PERCEPTION: How thirst modulates the perception of transparency || 1 news: a b c d ||
    COGNITIVE SCIENCE
  1. ORIGINS OF EMOTIONS: Grand unified theory of emotions. || COMING...maybe ||
  2. HUMAN 3.0: What's next, after human? || The hybrid novel (coming) ||
  3. LANGUAGE & MUSIC ORIGINS: Speech & music mimic object & human events || HARNESSED news: a b c d e f g h i j k l m ||
  4. LEXICON: Organization, economy and number of hierarchical levels in the lexicon || 1 news: a b c d e f ||
  5. WRITING SYSTEMS: Complexity of writing over human history || 1 VR news: a b c d e f g h i j k ... ||
  6. APPETITE: Learning of thirst and hunger in rats; acquisition of appetitive behavior || 1 ||
  7. RIDDLE of INDUCTION: A general theory of prior probability || 1 25k ||
  8. VAGUENESS of LANGUAGE: Why natural language is vague || 1 2 25k ||
  9. AHA! MOMENTS: Mathematical inevitability of the "Eureka" phenomenon || 1 2 ||
  10. LEARNING THEORY: Ultimate computational limits on learning || 1 2 ||
    THEORETICAL (NEURO)BIOLOGY
  1. SELF-VISIBLE FACE: The shape of the face and its emotional expressions. || COMING ||
  2. PRUNEY FINGERS: Why fingers and feet wrinkle when wet. || 1 news: TED a b c d e f g h i j k ||
  3. CITIES: Scaling principles for city highway networks || 1 news: a b c d e f g h i j k ||
  4. VISUAL CORTEX: Why there are about 15 hierarchical levels in the ventral stream || 1 ||
  5. BRAIN SCALING: Principles governing how bigger brains are made || 1 2 chapter encycl 25k news: a b c d e ||
  6. MAMMALIAN BEHAVIOR: Behaviors, muscles and encephalization || 1 25k ||
  7. NEURON and ARTERY SHAPE: Self-organization and optimality of neurons and arteries || 1 2 ||
  8. NUMBER of LIMBS: Why animals have as many limbs as they do || 1 25k demo news: a b c ||
  9. COMPLEX NETWORKS: Evolution of complexity in organisms and languages. || 1 2 3 4 5 25k news: a b c d ||                                                                                                                        
CONTACT INFORMATION                                                                                                                                                                                                
    My residence is just outside of NYC, but I travel regularly to 2AI in Boise.

    POST
    Dr. Mark A. Changizi
    2AI Labs
    917 South Lusk St.
    Suite 369
    Boise, ID 83706

    E-MAIL changizi@changizi.com or changizi@2ai.org or mchangizi@gmail.com

    SOCIAL MEDIA Facebook "Fan" Page, Twitter, LinkedIn

    THIS WEB PAGE IS AT ... www.changizi.com/changizi_lab.html

EDUCATION                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

    PhD. Applied Mathematics, University of Maryland, USA, 1997.
      Computer Science Advisors: Dr. Carl Smith, Dr. William Gasarch.
      Philosophy Advisors: Dr. Christopher Cherniak, Dr. Frederick Suppe.
      Neuroscience Advisor: Dr. Christopher Cherniak.

    B.S. Physics, Mathematics, University of Virginia, USA, 1991.

    High School Diploma. Thomas Jefferson H. S. for Science and Technology, USA, 1987.

EMPLOYMENT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
Post-PhD
  • Managing Director, O2Amp, 2012- .
  • Director of Human Cognition, 2AI: Institute for the study of human and machine cognition, 2010- .
  • Assistant Professor, Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2007-2010.
  • Sloan-Swartz Fellow, Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical Neurobiology, Caltech, 2002-2006.
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Psychological and Brain Sciences, Duke University, 2000-2002.
  • Neuroscience Consultant, Schafer Biotechnology, Arlington, VA, 1998-1999.
  • Visiting Assistant Professor, Computer Science, University College Cork, Ireland, 1997-1998.
Pre-PhD
  • Neuroanatomy Research Assistant, University of Maryland, 1993-1997.
  • Lecturer, Department of Mathematics, University of Maryland, 1995-1997.
  • Laboratory Lecturer, Department of Physics, George Mason University, 1992-1995.
  • Lecturer, Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, Summer 1994.
  • Teaching Assistant, Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, Fall 1993.
  • Lab Assistant, Image Recognition Laboratory, University of Maryland, Fall 1992.
  • Undergrad Lab Assistant, Stanford Linear Accelerator, University of Virginia, Spring 1992.
  • Undergrad Lab Assistant, Cosmic Ray Physics, University of Utah, Summer 1991.
  • Undergrad Lab Assistant, Fermi Accelerator Laboratory, Summer 1990.
  • Undergrad Lab Assistant, Dept of Astronomy, University of Maryland, Summer 1989.

AFFILIATIONS

ARTICLES AND BOOKS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

BOOKS
  1. Changizi MA (2011)
    HARNESSED: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man (BenBella Books).
    [ Info, Excerpted in the Scientific American ] [ Reviews: Leonardo, BrainPickings New Scientist, Forbes, DiscoverMag, Nobel laureate review, The Scientist, Wall Street Journal, Library Journal, Petrov, Psychology Today, Apocalypse, Faenasphere, more. Press: VICE, io9, NOWOSCI, Understanding Why Music Moves Us. Beautiful Brain, New Scientist Top Ten Book, 2011, Earthsky, Suite101, Les Cahiers, Neuroanthropology, InternetActu, Dr. Kiki's Science Hour, WSJ, Late Night Live. Sciam, Wired, Innovation News Daily, NPR/HearItNow, MSNBC, Soundcheck, New Scientist, Forbes, DiscoverMag, Nobel laureate review, Salt Lake Tribune, EurekAlert, KatiePhd, Science and Religion Today, BlogTalkRadio, Benchfly, Euroscientist, Duke Chronicle, Sciam MIND, Le Monde, Science News, Masters of Media, Harrison's Hangout, TIME, Brain Bright, Philadelphia Inquirer, Idaho Statesman, BrainPickings, Descopera ]



  2. Changizi MA (2009)
    THE VISION REVOLUTION (BenBella Books). [German, Korean, Japanese. ]
    [ PDF Blurb, Excerpted in the Wall Street Journal ] [ Reviews: Wall Street Journal, Scientific American MIND, Barnes & Noble Spotlight Review, Publishers Weekly (starred review), Choice Magazine, The Psychologist, The Quarterly Review of Biology, New Scientist, Dan Simons of The Invisible Gorilla, Brain Pickings, J Behav Optom, Scientific American, Yale Scientific, Estadao, Tabula rasa, Korean review, ORF. Press: Scientific American, The New York Times, Scientific American interview, Scientific American mention, ABC News, Science Daily, The Beautiful Brain, Quo, Neuronarrative, ScriptPhD, Kotaku, ScientificBlogging, RPI press release, EurekAlert, Rensselaer Magazine, This Week in Science (podcast), The Lionel Show, LateNightLive, EarthSky (color), EarthSky (4 min in) (illusions), Diffusion Radio, Forbes, CNet, interviews me about VisRev (40:30 in). Estadão, Bill Benzon, David Bradley, Skeptically Speaking, Crooked Timber, RadioSlovenia. ]



  3. Changizi MA (2003)
    THE BRAIN FROM 25,000 FEET: High Level Explorations of Brain Complexity, Perception, Induction and Vagueness
    (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht). Description, Buy the book at Amazon, Table of contents (pdf), [Chapter 1: Scaling in Nervous Networks], [Chapter 2: Inevitability of Illusions], [Chapter 3: Induction and Innateness], [Chapter 4: Vagueness and Consequences of a Finite Brain], A review in Synthese by Dan Ryder.

ARTICLES
  1. Changizi MA, Brucksch M, Kotecha R, McDonald K, Rio K (2013)
    Ecological warnings.
    Safety Science in press. [ PDF reprint ]

  2. Changizi MA, Weber R, Kotecha R & Palazzo J (2011)
    Are Wet-Induced Wrinkled Fingers Primate Rain Treads?
    Brain, Behavior and Evolution, to appear. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: TED, NPR Science Friday, Bite Sci-zed video, Geek Beat TV, Science Bulletin, Guru, Nature, NPR, MSNBC, PBS News Hour, Discovery, Washington Post, Gawker, FOX News, Innovation News Daily, NY Times, Science Illustrated, Express, Mental Floss, Volkskrant, Smaller Questions, AOL, Robert Kurzban, Guardian, Scientific American, Science News, io9, WIRED, New Statesman, Le Monde, Eos Wetenschap Oggiscienza, Origo, Scinexx, Humanistischer Pressedienst, 21 Stoleti, Heilpraxisnet, NY Times, Atlantic, Star Tribune, The Scientist, Jezebel, National Geographic, PsychScienceNotes, Chemical and Engineering News, BR. ]

  3. Changizi MA & Rio K (2009)
    Harnessing color vision for visual oximetry in central cyanosis,
    Medical Hypotheses 74: 87-91. [PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Times Union (video), Troy Record, LA Times, Toronto Sun, BoingBoing, Forbes, AOL News, Ratschlag24, Diagnostic Imaging, Times Colony, Scripps News, press release, ScientificBlogging ]

  4. Changizi MA & Destefano M (2009)
    Common scaling laws for city highway systems and the mammalian neocortex.
    Complexity 15: 11-18. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: LiveScience (Yahoo News), Daily Planet TV show (about half way), ScientificBlogging, Reason, The Atlantic, Sciam, Open Mag, io9, Digital City, Tyden, Wissenschaft, Donbass, Tendencias, RPI ]

  5. Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2009)
    Response to H.C. Howland, "Orbital orientation is not visual orientation."
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 257: 524-525. [ PDF reprint ]

  6. Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2008)
    A functional explanation for the effects of visual exposure on preference.
    Perception 37: 1510-1519. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Live Science, Fox News, Scientific Blogging, Forskning, Atelier, Express, RPI ]

  7. Changizi MA (2008)
    The trade-off between speed and complexity.
    Commentary on Nijhawan R, Visual Prediction: Psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31: 203. [ PDF reprint ]

  8. Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2008)
    "X-ray vision" and the evolution of forward-facing eyes.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 254: 756-767. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Forbes, Earthsky, Le Point, Science Daily, Caltech Press Release, Times of India, Wissenschaft, Epoch Times, Spiegel, Membrana, Kotaku. Polska, Real Science (audio), Scientific American, EarthSky, Skeptically Speaking, Rensselaer Magazine. ]

  9. Changizi MA (2008)
    Harnessing vision for computation.
    Perception 37: 1131-1134. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Wired.com, Science Daily, DailyTech, ScienceAGoGo, Tendencias, NEWS.XMNN, CNews, KopalniaWiedzy, Dr. Dobb's, Technology Research News Magazine, Epoch Times, Rensselaer Magazine ]

  10. Changizi MA (2008)
    Economically organized hierarchies in WordNet and the Oxford English Dictionary
    Journal of Cognitive Systems Research 9: 214-228. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Scientific American, Tendencias (Spain), RPI News, Red Orbit, New Kerala, United Press International ]

  11. Changizi MA, Hsieh A, Nijhawan R, Kanai R & Shimojo S (2008)
    Perceiving-the-present and a systematization of illusions.
    Cognitive Science 32: 459-503. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: TED, National Geographic's Brain Games, Mother Nature Network, NY Times, Welt, ABC News, Spiegel, Scientific American, Rensselaer Magazine, 3sat Nano TV (German television show) [version w/out voice-over], 3sat (text for Nano television piece), FOX News Channel (live television interview), Albany's Channel 10 News (television interview), Live Science (picked up in Yahoo News, MSNBC, Fox News, and worldwide), Scientific American Mind, Metrolic, Newsweek(ru), Sync (Dutch), BoingBoing, Lufthansa Exclusive, RPI News, Caltech News, Newsland (Russian), Science Daily, Times of India, MSN India, Technocrat, Tarakosh Josh!, Lawrence Journal-World, TechRevu, DVICE, Technovelgy, Tennis Korea (reprint from ChoSun), INews24, Pasadena Weekly, Reporter Online, EarthSky (4 min in) (illusions), BrainBlogger, Skeptically Speaking, Illusions of the Future, MSN (de) . ]

  12. Changizi MA (2006)
    The optimal human ventral stream from estimates of the complexity of visual objects.
    Biological Cybernetics 94: 415-426. [ PDF reprint ]

  13. Changizi MA, Zhang Q & Shimojo S (2006)
    Bare skin, blood, and the evolution of primate color vision.
    Biology Letters 2: 217-221. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Parade I, Parade II, UlrikeFeigl, MSNBC, TIME, Scientific American, CNet, Forbes, Road & Track, EarthSky, CNN, Irish Times, Professional Lighting Design, Reuters, New Scientist, Financial Times, Scientific American, Scientific American mention, Discover Magazine, Rensselaer Magazine, Bild der Wissenschaft (roughly a German Scientific American), ABC News, American Scientist, BoingBoing, Science Magazine (controversy), Time Magazine, Daily Telegraph, Daily Telegraph (Santa), Pasadena Star News, The Times of London, BBC Wildlife Magazine, Bluesci (Cambridge Science Magazine), Rhein Zeitung, Ingenioren, Der Standard, Die Presse, Ego-Net, GEO Magazine, 3SAT, Die Welt, Kagaku (Japanese scientific magazine), Nikkei Science, Iran Daily, Arkadas, Asahi Shimbun, CBC News, The Independent (London), Best Friends Magazine, Ceske Novinky, CNet, 24 ThoiSu, 123, Caltech news, Impact, Fugle og Natur, Anthropology.net, Complexity Digest, The Telegraph (Calcutta, India), Softpedia News, Erkenntnisse des Neuromarketing, Something You Should Know, Nana 10, Nana (navel) (English translation), CBC "As It Happens" (RealAudio), Loh Down on Science Radio Show script Skeptically Speaking, and the RealAudio clip ]

  14. Changizi MA, Zhang Q, Ye H & Shimojo S (2006)
    The structures of letters and symbols throughout human history are selected to match those found in objects in natural scenes.
    The American Naturalist 167: E117-E139. [ PDF reprint, May 2006 Featured Article ]
    [ News stories (and related): Dana Foundation, Nana 10, The New Yorker (by Oliver Sacks), Sciam Mind, The Atlantic, Sciam, Barnes and Noble review, Daily Telegraph, USA Today, Newsweek (print and online), Cahiers de Science et Vie, NY Times (review of Dehaene's book, discussing my research as "most interesting"), WSJ (discussed in review of Dehaene's book), NRC Handelsblad, Australian Broadcasting Company, Mokslo Lietuva, Live Science, Columbia Tribune, Softpedia News, Suddeutsche Zeitung, De Morgen, Svoboda News, USA Today Tech Space, Netinfo.bg Bulgaria, Internet Haber, Nikolaev, Something You Should Know, Engineering and Science Magazine, Caltech News EurekAlert, CURJ, Philadelphia Inquirer>, Science News, Idaho Statesman, Rensselaer Magazine ]

  15. Changizi MA & He D (2005)
    Four correlates of complex behavioral networks: differentiation, behavior, connectivity and compartmentalization.
    Complexity 10: 13-40. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Complexity Digest ]

  16. Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2005)
    Parcellation and area-area connectivity as a function of neocortex size.
    Brain, Behavior and Evolution 66: 88-98. [ PDF reprint ] [ News stories: Live Science. ]

  17. Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2005)
    Character complexity and redundancy in writing systems over human history.
    Proc Roy Soc Lond B 272: 267-275. [ PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: New Scientist, Natural History Magazine, Spiegel, Jay Ingram (of Discovery Channel), Bild der Wissenschaft (roughly a German "Scientific American"), Wissenschaft-online, ORF, Arzte Zeitung, San Diego Union-Tribune, GEO, Net Hirlap, Asahi Shimbun ]

  18. Changizi MA (2003)
    The relationship between number of muscles, behavioral repertoire size, and encephalization in mammals.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 220: 157-168. [ PDF reprint] [ see also Chapter 1, Section 2, of my first book 25k ]

  19. McShea D & Changizi MA (2003)
    Three puzzles in hierarchical evolution.
    Integrative and Comparative Biology 43: 74-81. [ Winzipped PDF reprint ]

  20. Changizi MA, McDannald MA & Widders D (2002)
    Scaling of differentiation in networks: Nervous systems, organisms, ant colonies, ecosystems, businesses, universities, cities, electronic circuits, and Legos.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 218: 215-237. [ PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 1, Section 2, of my first book 25k ] [ News stories: WIRED Telegraph Discover ]

  21. Changizi MA & Widders D (2002)
    Latency correction explains the classical geometrical illusions.
    Perception 31: 1241-1262. [ Winzipped PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 2 of my first book 25k ]
    [ News stories: Gehirn & Geist ]

  22. Changizi MA, McGehee RMF & Hall WG (2002)
    Evidence that appetitive responses for dehydration and food-deprivation are learned.
    Physiology and Behavior 75: 295-304. [ PDF reprint ]

  23. Changizi MA & Hall WG (2001)
    Thirst modulates a perception.
    Perception 30: 1489-1497. [ Winzipped PDF reprint ]
    [ News stories: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, The Psychologist, Science Magazine HF365 ]

  24. Changizi MA (2001)
    'Perceiving the present' as a framework for ecological explanations of the misperception of projected angle and angular size.
    Perception 30: 195-208. [ PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 2 of my first book 25k ]
    [ News stories: Gehirn & Geist ]

  25. Changizi MA (2001)
    Principles underlying mammalian neocortical scaling.
    Biological Cybernetics 84: 207-215. [ PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 1, Section 1, of my first book 25k ]

  26. Changizi MA (2001)
    Universal laws for hierarchical systems.
    Comments on Theoretical Biology 6: 25-75. [ PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 1, Section 2, of my first book 25k ]

  27. Changizi MA (2001)
    Universal scaling laws for hierarchical complexity in languages, organisms, behaviors and other combinatorial systems.
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 211: 277-295. [ PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 1, Section 2, of my first book 25k ]

  28. Changizi MA (2001)
    The economy of the shape of limbed animals.
    Biological Cybernetics 84: 23-29. [ Winzipped PDF reprint ] [ DEMO ] [ see also Chapter 1, Section 3, of my first book 25k ]
    [ News stories (and related): Tubitak Bilim ve Teknik , Science.ca, Life's Little Mysteries

  29. Changizi MA & Cherniak C (2000)
    Modeling the large-scale geometry of human coronary arteries.
    Canadian J. of Physiol. and Pharmacol. 78: 603-611. [ PDF reprint ]

  30. Cherniak C, Changizi MA & Kang D (1999)
    Large-scale optimization of neuron arbors.
    Physical Review E 59: 6001-6009. [ PDF reprint ]

  31. Changizi MA (1999)
    Vagueness, rationality and undecidability: A theory of why there is vagueness.
    Synthese 120: 345-374. [ PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 4 of my first book 25k ]

  32. Changizi MA (1999)
    Vagueness and computation.
    Acta Analytica 14: 39-45.

  33. Changizi MA & Barber T (1998)
    A paradigm-based solution to the riddle of induction.
    Synthese 117: 419-484. [ PDF reprint ] [ see also Chapter 3 of my first book 25k ]

  34. Changizi MA (1997)
    Learning with natural imprecision.
    Int. J. of Foundations of Computer Science 8: 409-424. [ PDF reprint ]

  35. Changizi MA (1996)
    Function identification from noisy data with recursive error bounds.
    Erkenntnis 45: 91-102.

  36. Changizi MA (1996)
    Self-monitoring machines and an w^w-hierarchy of loops.
    Information and Computation 128: 127-138. [ PDF reprint ]

CONTRIBUTED CHAPTERS
  1. Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2008)
    Social color vision.
    In R. B. Adams, Jr., N. Ambady, K. Nakayama & S. Shimojo (Eds.)
    The Science of Social Vision. New York, Oxford U. Press.

  2. Shimojo S & Changizi MA (2008)
    Influence of gaze behavior on preference.
    In R. B. Adams, Jr., N. Ambady, K. Nakayama & S. Shimojo (Eds.)
    The Science of Social Vision. New York, Oxford U. Press.

  3. Changizi MA, Hsieh A, Nijhawan R, Kanai R & Shimojo S (2007)
    Perceiving-the-present and a unified theory of illusions.
    In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.),
    Problems of Space and Time in Perception and Action. Cambridge, Cambridge U. Press.

  4. Changizi MA (2009)
    Brain scaling laws.
    In Squire LR (ed.) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Oxford, Academic Press. [ PDF reprint ]

  5. Changizi MA (2007)
    Scaling the brain and its connections.
    In Kaas JH (ed.) Evolution of Nervous Systems. Oxford, Elsevier. [ PDF reprint ]

BOOK REVIEWS, HIGHLIGHTS and SELECT MAGAZINE PIECES
  1. Changizi MA (March, 2011)
    Masters of Distraction. Review of Cathy Davidson, Now You See It.
    Wall Street Journal [ link ]

  2. Changizi MA (March, 2011)
    No, children really are our future.
    Wired [ link ]

  3. Changizi MA (Feb, 2011)
    Human, version 3.0
    Seed Magazine [ link ]

  4. Changizi MA (Jan, 2011)
    The Web is Not a Gadget
    Seed Magazine [ link ]

  5. Changizi MA (Dec, 2010)
    What is it like to be Oliver Sacks?
    New Scientist [ link ]

  6. Changizi MA (Sept, 2010)
    Where Does Music Come From?
    The Atlantic [ link ]

  7. Changizi MA (Sept, 2010)
    I'm Not Only the Red Club President, I'm a Client
    PLOS Blogs [ link ]

  8. Changizi MA (Sept, 2009)
    Why Does Music Make Us Feel?
    Scientific American [ link ]

  9. Changizi MA (2010)
    Neuroscientist's embarrassment: Artifical Intelligence's opportunity.
    Brain, Behavior and Evolution 75: 85 [ PDF reprint ]

  10. Changizi MA (2009)
    A review of Melanie Mitchell (2009) Complexity: A Guided Tour, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    The Quarterly Review of Biology. [ not available ]

  11. Changizi MA (2003)
    The politically correct monkey.
    A review of Ian Tattersall (2002) The Monkey in the Mirror, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Heredity 90: 278. [ PDF reprint ]

  12. Changizi MA (2003)
    Mathematica's first academic monograph.
    A review of Stephen Wolfram (2002) A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media, Champaigne, IL.
    Complexity 8(2): 63-65. [ PDF reprint ]

  13. Changizi MA (2002)
    The intricate process of implication.
    A review of Mark C. Taylor (2001) The Moment of Complexity, The University of Chicago Press.
    Complexity 7(3): 17-18. [ PDF reprint ]

GRANTS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
  1. 2008. The Class of 1951 Outstanding Teaching Development Grant .
    Topic: Visual circuits: A novel notation system for undergraduate education of digital circuits and propositional logic.
    Amount: Partial summer salary, student funds and miscellaneous expenses.

  2. 2004-2007. NIH Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (NRSA) Postdoctoral Fellowship.
    Topic: Perceiving-the-present: A general theory of illusions.
    Amount: Three year grant, funding full salary and miscellaneous expenses. [1 F32 EY015370-01]

  3. 2002-2004. Sloan-Swartz Fellowship.
    Topic: Theoretical neurobiology.
    Amount: Two year grant, funding partial salary and miscellaneous expenses.
PRESS

SELECT PRESS STORIES  
GENERAL: SciAm, Rensselaer Mag, Benchfly, Jam-e-Jam, This Week in Sci, Lionel Show, LateNightLive
HARNESSED: Neuroanthro, Soundcheck, Dr. Kiki's, WSJ, Late Night Live, Sciam (excerpt), NewSci, Disc, Wired.
THE VISION REVOLUTION: WSJ , SciAm MIND, B & N Spotlight, Pub Weekly (starred), New Scientist.
ILLUSIONS OF THE FUTURE: NY Times, Live Science, SciAm, SciAm Mind, FOX News, Newsweek(ru), 3sat TV.
EVOLUTION OF WRITING: Newsweek, Telegraph, MSNBC, USA Today, The New Yorker. Cahiers de Sci et Vie.
COLOR FOR SKIN: Time Magazine, Financial Times, Reuters, New Scientist, ABC News, SciAm, Discover, Die Welt.
DICTIONARIES FOR BRAINS: SciAm, Tendencias. THIRSTY VISION: TICS, The Psychologist, Science Magazine.
FORWARD-FACING EYES: Science Daily, Real Science, Spiegel. EYE COMPUTATION: WIRED, ScienceAGogo.
BRAIN-SHAPED CITIES: Yahoo, Reason, Daily Planet TV, Digital City. WHY ADVERTISING WORKS: Live Science.
VISUAL OXIMETRY: LA Times, Toronto Sun, AOL News. BRAIN EVOLUTION: Live Science, Le Monde, Sciam.
PRUNEY FINGERS Nature, NPR, WashPost. # LIMBS AND DIGITS Life's Little Mysteries. LEGOS LAWS WIRED.

                   
                        (with and without voice-over)                                                                                                                                


Select television and radio coverage:
  1. National Geographic's Brain Games, June, 2013:



  2. TED, Pruney Fingers, May, 2013:



  3. ABC's This Could Be Big, February, 2013:



  4. Diffusion Radio, February, 2013:



  5. NPR's Science Friday, January, 2013:
    .


  6. Discovery Channel's Daily Planet, January, 2013:
    .
    (Pruney finger discovery at 2:50, and O2Amp at 3:50.)


  7. EMONOME, Emon Hassan, January, 2013:
    .


  8. TED, November, 2012: [Go to 4:25:06]
    .


  9. Virtually Speaking Science, Jennifer Ouellette, November, 2012:
    .


  10. MSNBC, Dylan Ratigan, June, 2012:
    .


  11. Earthsky, June, 2012:
    .


  12. Principal on-screen science host of Discovery Channel's Head Games, June, 2012, first season, three episodes:
    .


  13. Radiolab, June, 2012:
    .


  14. Technology Review, April, 2012 (voice-over):
    .


  15. Brain Bright, March, 2012:
    .


  16. Skeptically Speaking (20 min in), February, 2012:
    .


  17. Harrison's Hangout (5:30 in), January, 2012:
    .


  18. BlogTalkRadio, September, 2011:
    .


  19. WNYC, Soundcheck, August, 2011:
    .


  20. Something You Should Know, August, 2011: Why Humans Read So Well

    Why Humans Read So Well,
    Color and Pruney Fingers.


  21. NPR / Hear It Now, August, 2011:



  22. Late Night Live, July, 2011:



  23. Radio Slovenia, June, 2011:



  24. Dr. Kiki's Science Hour, May, 2011:



  25. Futureproof Radio, May, 2011 (40:30 in):



  26. EarthSky podcast:
    Color (Sept, 2010),
    Illusions, (go 4 minutes in) (Nov, 2010),
    Forward-Facing Eyes, (go 22.5 minutes in) (Jan, 2011).



  27. Diffusion Radio, June, 2010:



  28. ScriptPhD's podcast, May, 2010:



  29. Noah Hutton's The Beautiful Brain, March, 2010:



  30. LateNightLive, ABC Radio National, December 9, 2009:



  31. Lionel Radio Show, November 5, 2009:



  32. This Week in Science, October 20, 2009:



  33. Daily Planet, Discovery Channel, September 16, 2009:



  34. 3sat, Nano German television, filmed by Robert Richter, October 27, 2008

    The version without voice-over is here.


  35. Fox News Channel, June, 2008:
    (right-click to view larger at Youtube)



  36. Channel 10 News in Albany, June 11, 2008:
    (right-click to view larger at Youtube)



  37. CBC "As It Happens," 2006:



  38. Loh Down on Science, 2006:




Timeline:
  1. O2Amp: ABC's This Could Be Big, Video segment by Emon Hassan, EMONOME, Video from Daily Planet, Top 100 techs of 2012, Diffusion Radio, Scientific American / Txchnologist, Slashdot, io9, The Times UK [subscription], BBC, Discovery News, Daily Mail UK New Scientist, Smart Planet, CBC, Unexplained Mysteries, Telegraph, Voice of Russia, Geek Chic Mama, NY Daily News, GizMag, The Argus, Elite Daily, Columbia Chronicle, Under the Gun, Today, Parade I, Parade II, PopSci.

    Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: Parade I, Parade II, Video segment by Emon Hassan, EMONOME, Video from Daily Planet. [See many in the O2Amp list, which touch also on color research]

    Pruney Fingers: TED, Science News, Courier, French students on pruney fingers, NPR Science Friday, Bite Sci-zed video, Geek Beat TV, Video from Daily Planet (at 2:50), Smaller Questions, AOL, Robert Kurzban, Guardian, Scientific American, Science News, io9, WIRED, New Statesman, Le Monde, Eos Wetenschap Oggiscienza, Origo, Scinexx, Humanistischer Pressedienst, 21 Stoleti, Heilpraxisnet, NY Times, Atlantic, Star Tribune, The Scientist, Jezebel, National Geographic, PsychScienceNotes, BR.

    Perceiving-the-present theory of illusions: National Geographic's Brain Games

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature: Dana Foundation.

    HARNESSED: VICE.

    Miscellaneous: El diario

  2. Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: Skeptically Speaking [20 min in]. Phil Inquirer, Radiolab, TIME, Crooked Timber, MSNBC.

    HARNESSED: io9, Understanding Why Music Moves Us, NOWOSCI, Beautiful Brain, Harrison's Hangout (5:30 in), TIME, Brain Bright, Philadelphia Inquirer, Idaho Statesman, Science News, Life's Little Mysteries, Apocalypse, Faenasphere, Benchfly, Earthsky, Petrov, Descopera, The Scientist.

    O2Amp: MSNBC, Sciencebase, Tech Rev, Betabeat, PopSci, ExameInformatica, Smithsonian, LiveScience/Yahoo, WIRED, NZ Herald, Investors, DesignBoom, Mobiledia, Discovery, PSFK, Neoteo. Earthsky, Good, Wissenundkonzepte, Stuff, Forbes, Actualidad, Geek, Gizmodo, PSFK, Neatorama, TIME, Oprah, BBC, DarkDaily, Lost At E Minor, Prevention Magazine, Top Seven Major Health Innovations of 2012, ZenniOptical.

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature: Idaho Statesman, Science News, Philadelphia Inquirer.

    Number of limbs and digits: Clickideia, Life's Little Mysteries.

    Biology's Lego Laws: WIRED, Telegraph, Discover.

    Pruney Fingers: Science Bulletin, Guru, Science Illustrated, Express, Mental Floss, Volkskrant.

    X-ray vision and forward-facing eyes: Skeptically Speaking [20 min in].

    Perceiving-the-present theory of illusions: LiveScience, National Geographic, Skeptically Speaking [20 min in].

    THE VISION REVOLUTION: Yale Scientific, Tabula rasa, ORF, Scientific American, Life's Little Mysteries, Korean review, Skeptically Speaking [20 min in].

    Thirst modulates perception: HF365.

    Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: UlrikeFeigl.

    Miscellaneous: MISC, io9, Discovery Channel's Head Games, MSNBC TV, Technology Review, The Economist. TIME, Idaho Statesman, Institute for the Future, Daily Beast, Virtually Speaking, New Scientist.

  3. HARNESSED: New Scientist Top Ten Book, 2011, InternetActu, The Atlantic, Dr. Kiki's Science Hour, WSJ, Late Night Live, Sciam, Wired, Innovation News Daily, NPR/HearItNow, MSNBC, Leonardo, WNYC/Soundcheck, New Scientist, Forbes, DiscoverMag, Nobel laureate review, Wall Street Journal, Library Journal, Salt Lake Tribune, EurekAlert, KatiePhd, Science and Religion Today, BlogTalkRadio, Euroscientist, Duke Chronicle, Sciam MIND, Psychology Today, Le Monde, Masters of Media, BrainPickings.

    THE VISION REVOLUTION: J Behav Optom, RadioSlovenia, Brain Pickings, Bill Benzon, David Bradley, FutureProof (40:30 in).

    Pruney Fingers: Nature, NPR, MSNBC, PBS News Hour, Discovery, Washington Post, Gawker, Innovation News Daily, NY Times, FOX News.

    Brain Evolution: Les limites de l'intelligence, Sciam.

    Brain-Shaped Cities: Sciam.

    X-ray vision and forward-facing eyes: Forbes, Earthsky, FutureProof (40:30 in).

    Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: Scientific American, Something You Should Know, Bill Benzon, David Bradley, FutureProof (40:30 in).

    Perceiving-the-present theory of illusions: LiveScience, Mother Nature Network, LiveScience 2.

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature: Something You Should Know.

    Miscellaneous: Forbes, Fastcodesign, Technology Review, The Valve, Bookpleasures.

    Featured writer at: Wall Street Journal, Forbes, Wired, Seed Magazine, Psychology Today, Science 2.0.

  4. Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: CNet, Forbes, EarthSky, CNN, Professional Lighting Design, Irish Times, Road & Track.

    X-ray vision and forward-facing eyes: Kotaku, EarthSky.

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature: Nana 10, Sciam Mind, The New Yorker (by Oliver Sacks).

    Brain Evolution : TheBeautifulBrain, Live Science.

    Harnessing Color Vision for Oximetry : Forbes, Times Union (video), LA Times, Toronto Sun, Troy Record, BoingBoing, AOL News, Ratschlag24, Diagnostic Imaging, Times Colony, Scripps News, press release, ScientificBlogging

    Perceiving-the-present theory of illusions: BrainBlogger, EarthSky (4 min in) (illusions), Metrolic.

    HARNESSED : Suite101, Les Cahiers, Neuroanthropology.

    THE VISION REVOLUTION: Estadão, Estadão [2], CNet, Forbes, EarthSky, Kotaku, Diffusion Radio, The Beautiful Brain, Quo, Neuronarrative, ScriptPhd, The Psychologist, The Quarterly Review of Biology, New Scientist, Dan Simons of The Invisible Gorilla.

    Featured writer at: New Scientist The Atlantic, Psychology Today, Science 2.0, Telegraph.

  5. Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: Scientific American mention, BoingBoing, Nana (navel) (English translation).

    Brain-shaped cities : LiveScience (Yahoo News), Daily Planet TV show (about half way), ScientificBlogging, Reason, The Atlantic, Open Mag, io9, Digital City, Tyden, Wissenschaft, Donbass, Tendencias, RPI.

    THE VISION REVOLUTION: Wall Street Journal (review), Wall Street Journal (book excerpt), Scientific American MIND (review), Scientific American mention, ABC News, Publishers Weekly (starred review), Barnes & Noble Spotlight Review, ScientificBlogging, RPI press release, EurekAlert, This Week in Science (podcast), The Lionel Show, Choice Magazine, LateNightLive.

    My research generally: Benchfly, Rensselaer Magazine (html version) (print version), JamEJam (Iran) (html version) (print version) (English).

    Why adverts work : Fox News, Express.

    Perceiving-the-present theory of illusions: ABC News, Welt, INews24, Pasadena Weekly, Reporter Online.

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature: The Atlantic, Sciam, Barnes and Noble review, NY Times (discussed in review of Dehaene's book: "most interesting"), WSJ (discussed in review of Dehaene's book).

    Featured or guest writer at: Scientific American, Semiotix, ScientificBlogging.

  6. My research generally: Scientific American (an interview).

    THE VISION REVOLUTION (pre-release): The New York Times, Scientific American (an interview), Science Daily.

    Why adverts work : Live Science, Scientific Blogging, Forskning, Atelier, RPI.

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature: Cahiers de Science et Vie.

    Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: Nana 10.

    X-ray vision and forward-facing eyes: Le Point, Science Daily, Caltech Press Release, Times of India, Wissenschaft, Epoch Times, Spiegel, Membrana, Polska, Real Science (audio), Scientific American.

    Turning your visual system into a programmable computer: Wired.com, Science Daily, DailyTech, ScienceAGoGo, Tendencias, NEWS.XMNN, CNews, KopalniaWiedzy, Dr. Dobb's, Technology Research News Magazine, Epoch Times

    Perceiving-the-present theory of illusions: The New York Times, Spiegel, Scientific American, 3sat Nano TV (German television show) [version w/out voice-over], 3sat (text for Nano television piece), FOX News Channel (live television interview), Albany's Channel 10 News (television interview), Live Science (picked up in Yahoo News, MSNBC, Fox News, and worldwide), Scientific American Mind, Newsweek(ru), Sync (Dutch), BoingBoing, Lufthansa Exclusive, RPI News, Caltech News, Newsland (Russian), Science Daily, Times of India, MSN India, Technocrat, Tarakosh Josh!, Lawrence Journal-World, TechRevu, DVICE, Technovelgy, Tennis Korea (reprint from ChoSun), MSN (de) .

    Dictionaries for the brain: Scientific American, Tendencias (Spain), RPI News, Red Orbit, New Kerala, United Press International

  7. Thirst modulates perception: Science Magazine

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature: Columbia Tribune

    Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc.: GEO Magazine, Science Magazine, Daily Telegraph (Santa), Nikkei Science

  8. Evolution of writing systems: Asahi Shimbun

    Number-of-limbs discovery: Tubitak Bilim ve Teknik

    Letters and other visual signs look like nature : Daily Telegraph, USA Today, Newsweek (print and online), NRC Handelsblad, Cahiers de Science et Vie, Australian Broadcasting Company, Mokslo Lietuva, Live Science, Softpedia News, Suddeutsche Zeitung, De Morgen, Svoboda News, USA Today Tech Space, Netinfo.bg Bulgaria, Internet Haber, Nikolaev, Engineering and Science Magazine, Caltech News, EurekAlert, CURJ

    Color evolved for seeing blushing, blanching, etc. : Reuters, New Scientist, Financial Times, Scientific American, Discover Magazine, Bild der Wissenschaft (roughly a German Scientific American), ABC News, American Scientist, Time Magazine, Daily Telegraph, Pasadena Star News, The Times of London, BBC Wildlife Magazine, Bluesci (Cambridge Science Magazine), Rhein Zeitung, Ingenioren, Der Standard, Die Presse, Ego-Net, 3SAT, Die Welt, Kagaku (Japanese scientific magazine), Iran Daily, Arkadas, Asahi Shimbun, CBC News, The Independent (London), Best Friends Magazine, Ceske Novinky, CNet, 24 ThoiSu, 123, Caltech news, Impact, Fugle og Natur, Anthropology.net, Complexity Digest, The Telegraph (Calcutta, India), Softpedia News, Erkenntnisse des Neuromarketing, CBC "As It Happens" (RealAudio), Loh Down on Science Radio Show script

  9. Biology's Lego Laws: Complexity Digest

    Perceiving-the-present theory of illusions: Gehirn & Geist

    Evolution of writing systems: New Scientist, Natural History Magazine, Spiegel, Jay Ingram (from Discovery Channel), Wissenschaft, Wissenschaft-Online, ORF, Arzte Zeitung, San Diego Union-Tribune, GEO, Net Hirlap

  10. My first book, The Brain from 25000 Feet: A review in Synthese by Dan Ryder

    Number-of-limbs discovery : Science.ca (popular Canadian science web site)

  11. Thirst modulates perception: Trends in Cognitive Sciences, The Psychologist
TALKS                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
  1. Nature-Harnessing in Writing. ...and Language and Music
        Invited Speaker, Columbia University, 1/2012.
  2. Future Illusions
        Invited Speaker, TED, 11/2012.
  3. Nature-Harnessing in Writing. ...and Language and Music
        Invited Speaker, Caltech, 5/2012.
  4. Nature-Harnessing and the Evolution of Art
        Invited Speaker, Lafayette College, 4/2012.
  5. Harnessing the Brain for Language and Music
        Invited Speaker, Rockefeller University, 2/2012.
  6. Vision rEvolution
        Invited Speaker, Museum of the Image, Amsterdam, NL, 12/2011.
  7. Vision Revolution
        Keynote Speaker, Harold A. Stein Lecture, JCAHPO, Orlando, FL, 10/2011.
  8. Harnessed: The Nature in Language and Music
        Neurohumanities Talk Series, Duke University, 9/2011.
  9. Harnessed
        Lucid NYC, NYC, 9/2011.
  10. Harnessed
        SciFoo, GooglePlex, 8/2011.
  11. Harnessed, and Vision Revolution
        Invited Speaker, NY Hall of Science, NY, NY, 8/2011.
  12. How to Harness an Ape Brain for Art
        Keynote Speaker, Faculty Conference, Savannah College of Art and Design, Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, 3/2011.
  13. How to Harness an Ape Brain for Art
        Keynote Speaker, Faculty Conference, Savannah College of Art and Design, Savannah, GA, 3/2011.
  14. The Vision Revolution
        Invited Speaker, Savannah College of Art and Design, Savannah, GA, 3/2011.
  15. The Evolution of Color, Illusions, Forward-Facing Eyes and Writing for Humans...and Aliens
        Banquet Speaker, Human Vision and Electronic Imaging (SPIE), San Franciscio, CA, 1/2011.
  16. Vision REvolution.
        Invited Speaker, Rusutsu Neuroscience Workshop, Japan, 1/2011.
  17. Music -- Language -- Sound and Nature
        Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center (EMPAC), Troy, NY, 11/2010.
  18. Alien Vision Revolution.
        Clarkson University, 10/2010.
  19. Alien Vision Revolution.
        Hamilton College, 9/2010.
  20. Alien Vision Revolution.
        Keynote Speaker, Shoppers Insights, Chicago, 7/2010.
  21. Alien Vision Revolution
        Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center, Troy, NY, 4/2010
  22. Differentiation and Compartmentalization in Villages.
        Mini-Symposium on Cognitive Social Networks, RPI, 4/2010
  23. Nature-Harnessing.
        NEEPS, 3/2010
  24. The Vision Revolution.
        BSU, 3/2010
  25. Panel Discussion with Chris Salter.
        EMPAC, RPI, 3/2010
  26. Harnessed: How to Transform Ape to Man.
        Skidmore College, 2/2010
  27. The Vision Revolution.
        Designers Lighting Forum of New York, NYC, 1/2010
  28. Alien Vision Revolution.
        Department of Vision Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 11/09.
  29. Vision, Aliens and Evolution.
        Celebration for the 150th anniversary of The Origins of Species, Secular Student Alliance, RPI, NY, 11/09.
  30. Alien Vision Revolution.
        Department of Psychology, SUNY Albany, NY, 11/09.
  31. Alien Vision Revolution.
        Counselors to American Small Business (SCORE), Albany, NY, 10/09.
  32. Alien Vision Revolution.
        Albany Area Amateur Astronomers, Schenectady, NY, 10/09.
  33. How to harness an ape brain for language.
        Invited Speaker, MURI Kick-Off for Unified Theories of Language and Cognition, RPI, 7/09.
  34. The look and sound of nature in language and music.
        Keynote Address, International Conference on Iconicity, Toronto, Canada, 6/09.
  35. The illusory present
        Keynote Speaker, University in High School program, Greenwich Central School, Greenwich, NY, 6/09.
  36. Nature, physics and the origins of language
        Albany Region Neuroscience Chapter, Albany Medical College, NY, 5/09.
  37. How to co-opt an ape brain for language and art
        Invited Speaker, 9th Annual Colloquium on Cognition and Learning, Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center (EMPAC), RPI, 5/09.
  38. Evolution and visual displays
        Sharp Labs, Camas, WA, 5/09.
  39. Advolution: Evolution of advertising
        Palio Communications, Saratoga Springs NY, 2/09.
  40. Visual Computation
        RPI Association for Computing Machinery, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, 2/09.
  41. Verbose, unfocused, crazy, aloof, uppity, and lazy: My keys to success. In the context of Why we have forward-facing eyes
        "Behind the Science", Sigma Phi Epsilon, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, 9/08.
  42. Harnessing the visual brain.
        Meeting of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Atlanta, GA, 8/08.
  43. The structures of letters and symbols throughout human history are selected to match those found in objects in natural scenes,
        Invited Speaker, Vision Science Society, Naples, FL, 5/08.
  44. What's binocular vision for, anyway?,
        Center for Neuroscience and Neuropharmacology, Albany Medical Center, 3/08.
  45. What's binocular vision for, anyway?,
        Cognitive Science Colloquium, University of Connecticut, 11/07.
  46. What's binocular vision for, anyway?,
        Advanced Imaging Center, Albany Medical Center, 11/07.
  47. Big mammalian brain recipes,
        Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 9/07.
  48. Seeing the forest through the trees: X-ray vision and the evolution of forward facing eyes,
        Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2/07.
  49. Seeing the forest through the trees: X-ray vision and the evolution of forward facing eyes,
        Department of Psychology, UCLA, 12/06.
  50. Big mammalian brain recipes,
        Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, UCLA, 11/06.
  51. Letters from nature,
        Center for Behavior, Evolution and Culture, Department of Anthropology, UCLA, 10/06.
  52. Big mammalian brain recipes,
        Neurology Grand Rounds, UCLA, 10/06.
  53. Visual linguistics,
        Microsoft Typography Group, Redmond, WA, 6/06.
  54. Big brains,
        Psychology Department, University of Nevada, Reno, 2/06.
  55. Visual linguistics, and Why letters are shaped the way they are,
        Psychology Department, Franklin and Marshall College, 2/06.
  56. Why we see illusions, and why we see in color,
        Psychology Department, Franklin and Marshall College, 2/06.
  57. Visual linguistics, and Why letters are shaped the way they are,
        Cognitive Science Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 2/06.
  58. Visual linguistics, and Why letters are shaped the way they are,
        Department of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences, Brown University, 2/06.
  59. Visual linguistics, and Why letters are shaped the way they are,
        Seaver Foundation Program in Bioinformatics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2/06.
  60. Visual linguistics, and Why letters are shaped the way they are,
        Department of Anthropology, George Washington University, 1/06.
  61. Color, blood, skin and emotion: A general functional theory of color vision,
        Shimojo Implicit Brain Project, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology Seminar, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 6/05.
  62. Big brains, and analogies with other complex networks,
        School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, 3/05.
  63. Why letters are shaped the way they are,
        Department of Cognitive Science, UC Irvine, 1/05.
  64. Natural scene statistics and the structure of visual signs over human history,
        Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Brain Theory Program, UC Santa Barbara 9/04.
  65. The structures of letters throughout human history are selected to match those found in objects in natural scenes,
        Sloan-Swartz Theoretical Neurobiology Meeting, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 7/04.
  66. Complexity and redundancy of writing systems over human history,
        Perona Laboratory, Caltech, 5/04.
  67. Principles of connectivity and parcellation in neocortex and other networks,
        Center for the Study of Biological Complexity, Virginia Commonwealth University, 5/04.
  68. Principles of connectivity and parcellation in neocortex and other networks,
        Buszaki Laboratory, Rutgers, 5/04.
  69. How to (and not to) recognize the intelligent brains without seeing the behaviors,
        Astrobiology Science Conference [invited by SETI to speak at the session on Evolution of Intelligence], NASA Ames Research Center, 3/04.
  70. Complexity and redundancy of writing systems over human history,
        Complexity Club, Caltech, 3/04.
  71. Principles of connectivity and parcellation in the neocortex and other networks,
        School of Informatics, Indiana University, 2/04.
  72. Perceiving-the-present, a unifying framework for visual perception,
        Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical Neurobiology, Caltech, 1/04.
  73. Principles of connectivity and parcellation in neocortex.
        Sloan-Swartz Theoretical Neurobiology Meeting, Salk Institute, 7/03.
  74. Perceiving the present explains more than 50 illusion classes,
        Computational Neurobiology Lab, Salk Institute, 7/03.
  75. A general framework for complex networks,
        Complexity Club, Caltech, 7/03.
  76. Perceiving the present, and a general ecological theory of illusions of projected size, projected speed, luminance contrast, and distance,
        Koch Laboratory, Caltech, 3/03.
  77. The principles shaping the neocortex, and comparison to other networks,
        Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical Neurobiology, Caltech, 3/03.
  78. The scarcity of universal languages in nature, and How to carve networks at their joints,
        Complexity Club, Caltech, 2/03.
  79. Latency correction explains the classical geometrical illusions,
        Perona Laboratory, Caltech, 11/02.
  80. Scaling of differentiation in networks, and an explanation for species-area plots,
        Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, 7/02.
  81. Scaling of differentiation in networks,
        Lewis-Sigler Institute, Princeton University, 4/02.
  82. Why we see the classical illusions,
        Departments of Mathematics and Biology, University of Massachusetts at Boston, 2/02.
  83. Why we see the classical illusions,
        Bryn Mawr College, 1/02.
  84. Latency correction explains the classical geometrical illusions,
        Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 3/01.
  85. Universal scaling laws in languages, organisms, behaviors and other combinatorial systems,
        Department of History and Philosophy and Science, Indiana University, 3/01.
  86. Latency correction explains the classical geometrical illusions,
        Cognitive Science Program, Indiana University, 3/01
  87. Universal scaling laws in combinatorial sytems,
        Department of Computer Science, University of Central Florida, 1/01.
  88. Evolution of component-type, function and behavioral complexity,
        Department of Psychology, Duke University, 10/00.
  89. Perceiving the present,
        Department of Psychology, Duke University, 9/00.
  90. The network diameter of the neocortex,
        Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 5/00.
  91. VLSI animals: How animals save wire from head to toe,
        Department of Zoology, Duke University, 1/00.
  92. Principles underlying mammalian neocortical scaling,
        Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, 9/99.
  93. Towards a new logic and semantics for natural language,
        International Conference on Formal Methods, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland, 7/98.
  94. Vagueness and computation,
        Conference on Vagueness, Bled, Slovenia, 6/98.
  95. The Eureka phenomenon as a consequence of being finite,
        Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland, 2/98.
  96. Vagueness and undecidability,
        Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland, 2/97.
  97. Prior probabilities and the rule of succession,
        Recursion Theory Seminar, University of Maryland, 9/96.
  98. The paradigm of impossibility,
        Graduate Philosophy Colloquium, University of Maryland, 2/96.
  99. Fuzziness in classical two-valued logic,
        The Joint Conference of ISUMA/NAFIPS, University of Maryland, 9/95.
  100. Undecidability of analyticity in natural language,
        Graduate Philosophy Colloquium, University of Maryland, 3/95.
  101. Vagueness and undecidability,
        Cognitive Science Colloquium, University of Virginia, 2/94.
  102. Proving Occam's razor,
        Inductive Inference Seminar, University of Maryland, 4/93.
  103. The ultimate epistemic constraints on prediction,
        Society of Physics Students, University of Virginia, 3/91.
COURSES TAUGHT                                                                                                                                                  
  1. Origins of Music
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Fall 2009.
  2. Nature, Brain and Culture,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Spring 2009.
  3. Behavioral Neuroscience,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Spring 2009.
  4. Evolution of Primate Cognition,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Fall 2008.
  5. Cognitive Science of Art,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Spring 2008.
  6. Behavioral Neuroscience,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Spring 2008.
  7. Cognitive Science Pro-Seminar,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Fall 2007.
  8. Behavioral Neuroscience,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Fall 2007.
  9. Theoretical Neuroscience,
    Department of Cognitive Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Spring 2007.
  10. Methods in Behavioral Neuroscience,
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Duke University, 2000-2002.
  11. Introduction to Computer Science I and II,
    Department of Computer Science, University College Cork, Ireland, 1997-1998.
  12. Teaching Assistant for Calculus I and II,
    Department of Mathematics, University of Maryland, 1996-1997.
  13. Geometry and Statistics I and II for Education Majors,
    Department of Mathematics, University of Maryland, 1995-1997.
  14. Laboratory for Introductory Physics I and II,
    Department of Physics, George Mason University, 1992-1995.
  15. Laboratory for Introductory Astronomy I and II,
    Department of Physics, George Mason University, 1992-1995.
  16. Logic,
    Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, Summer 1994.
  17. Teaching Assistant for Philosophy and Computation,
    Department of Philosophy, University of Maryland, Fall 1993.
RESEARCH DETAILS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                


Why fingers and feet wrinkle when wet.
Wet fingers and toes eventually wrinkle, and this is commonly attributed by lay opinion to local osmotic reactions. However, nearly a century ago surgeons observed that no wrinkling occurs if a nerve to the finger has been cut. Here we provide evidence that, rather than being an accidental side effect of wetness, wet-induced wrinkles have been selected to enhance grip in wet conditions. We show that their morphology has the signature properties of drainage networks, enabling efficient removal of water from the gripped surface. Some press include
Nature, TED, Science News, Courier, French students on pruney fingers, NPR, MSNBC, PBS News Hour, Discovery, Washington Post, Gawker, Innovation News Daily, NY Times, Science Illustrated, Volkskrant, Mental Floss, Science Bulletin, Guru, Express, FOX News, NPR Science Friday, Bite Sci-zed video, Geek Beat TV, Video from Daily Planet (at 2:50), Smaller Questions, AOL, Robert Kurzban, Guardian, Scientific American, Science News, io9, WIRED, New Statesman, Le Monde, Eos Wetenschap Oggiscienza, Origo, Scinexx, Humanistischer Pressedienst, 21 Stoleti, Heilpraxisnet, NY Times, Atlantic, Star Tribune, The Scientist, Jezebel, National Geographic, PsychScienceNotes, BR.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA, Weber R, Kotecha R & Palazzo J (2011)
    Are Wet-Induced Wrinkled Fingers Primate Rain Treads?
    Brain, Behavior and Evolution, to appear.


Speech and music have culturally evolved to sound like natural and human events.
This is the topic of my book,
HARNESSED: How Language and Music Mimicked Nature and Transformed Ape to Man (Benbella, 2011). Book Description. Some press... VICE, New Scientist Top Ten Book, 2011, Understanding Why Music Moves Us, NOWOSCI, Earthsky, InternetActu, The Atlantic, Dr. Kiki's Science Hour, WSJ, Late Night Live, Sciam, Wired, Innovation News Daily, NPR/HearItNow, MSNBC, Leonardo, WNYC/Soundcheck, New Scientist, Forbes, DiscoverMag, Nobel laureate review, Wall Street Journal, Library Journal, Salt Lake Tribune, EurekAlert, KatiePhd, Science and Religion Today, BlogTalkRadio, Benchfly, Euroscientist, Duke Chronicle, Sciam MIND, Psychology Today, Petrov, Le Monde, Masters of Media, The Scientist, Harrison's Hangout, TIME, Idaho Statesman, Faenasphere, Apocalypse, Descopera, BrainPickings.


Harnessing your visual system to carry out computations
Might it be possible to harness the visual system to carry out artificial computations, somewhat akin to how DNA has been harnessed to carry out computation? I provide the beginnings of a research programme attempting to do this. In particular, new techniques are described for building "visual circuits" (or "visual software") using wire, NOT, OR and AND gates in a visual modality such that our visual system acts as "visual hardware" computing the circuit, and generating a resultant perception which is the output. I talk about this in THE VISION REVOLUTION (Benbella, 2009). Some press occurred at the following:
Wired.com, Science Daily, DailyTech, ScienceAGoGo, Tendencias, NEWS.XMNN, CNews, KopalniaWiedzy, Dr. Dobb's, Technology Research News Magazine, Epoch Times, Rensselaer Magazine
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2008) How to harness vision for computation.
    Perception 37: 1131-1134.


Principles governing the organization of city road networks...and the brain
Cities and the mammalian neocortex may seem to have little in common, but each is approximately a surface with a network of conduits (roads and neurons, respectively) connecting its disparate parts. Because both cities and brains are under selection pressures to make their connections efficiently, we investigate the hypothesis that the organization of city highway networks and the mammalian neocortex may be governed by common principles. Here we measure how city highway networks vary with city size and find that, consistent with the hypothesis, highway networks scale with exponents nearly identical to those found for the analogous quantities in the neocortex. As a function of surface area, the number of conduits scales approximately as the 3/4 power, the number of "leaves" (highway exits and synapses) scales approximately as the 9/8 power, propagation velocity scales approximately as the 1/8 power, and total conduit surface area scales approximately as the 11/8 power. We also find that city population scales as the 1.46 power of surface area, potentially driven by the total surface area of highways. We discuss the extent to which explanations for neocortical scaling can be extended to cities. Press has included:
LiveScience (Yahoo News), Daily Planet TV show (about half way), ScientificBlogging, Reason, The Atlantic, Sciam, Open Mag, io9, Digital City, Tyden, Wissenschaft, Donbass, Tendencias, RPI
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Destefano M (2009) Common scaling laws
    for city highway systems and the mammalian neocortex. Complexity 15: 11-18.


Techniques for early visual detection of oxygen desaturation
Central cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin, lips, tongue, nails, and mucous membranes, and is due to poor arterial oxygenation. Although skin color is one of its characteristic properties, it has long been realized that by the time skin color signs become visible, oxygen saturation is dangerously low. Here we investigate the visibility of cyanosis in light of recent discoveries on what color vision evolved for in primates. We elucidate why low arterial oxygenation is visible at all, why it is perceived as blue, and why it can be so difficult to perceive. With a better understanding of the relationship between color vision and blood physiology, we suggest two simple techniques for greatly enhancing the clinician's ability to detect cyanosis. Here is a piece in
Forbes, Times Union (video), Troy Record, LA Times, Toronto Sun, BoingBoing, AOL News, Ratschlag24, Diagnostic Imaging, Times Colony, Scripps News, Press release, and a piece I wrote in ScientificBlogging.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Rio K. Harnessing color vision for visual oximetry in central cyanosis,
    Medical Hypotheses 74: 87-91.


A new function for binocular vision, and the evolution of forward-facing eyes
Why do our eyes face forward, and why do many animals have eyes facing sideways? Here we describe new research suggesting that the degree of binocular convergence is selected to maximize how much the animal can see in its environment. Animals in non-cluttery environments can see the most around them with panoramic, laterally directed eyes. Animals in cluttery environments, however, can see best when their eyes face forward, for binocularity has the power of "seeing through" clutter out in the world. Evidence across mammals closely fits the predictions of this "x-ray" hypothesis, and is hard to reconcile with traditional explanations where stereo vision is critical. I talk about this in THE VISION REVOLUTION (Benbella, 2009). News stories include the following:
Forbes, Le Point, Science Daily, Caltech Press Release, Times of India, Kotaku, Wissenschaft, Epoch Times, Spiegel, Membrana, Polska, Skeptically Speaking, Real Science (audio). The idea was also touched upon in my Scientific American interview, and in Rensselaer Magazine.
    - [ PDF reprint ] - Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2009)
    Response to H.C. Howland, "Orbital orientation is not visual orientation."
    Journal of Theoretical Biology 257: 524-525.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2008) "X-ray vision" and the
    evolution of forward-facing eyes. Journal of Theoretical Biology 254: 756-767.


The underlying economic rationality of preference and affect dynamics
Visual exposure to an object can modulate an observer's degree of preference for it, initially enhancing preference (a "familiarity preference" regime), and eventually lowering it again (a "novelty preference" regime). Here we investigate whether there may be a functional advantage to modulating preference in this way. We put forth the simple hypothesis that degree of preference for an object of type X is the brain's estimate of the expected value of acting to obtain X. In light of this view of what preferences fundamentally represent, we are able to explain the "exposure effect" and many of the connected phenomena. Some press:
Live Science, Fox News, Scientific Blogging, Forskning, Atelier, Express. RPI.
    - [ not available ] Shimojo S & Changizi MA (2008) Influence of gaze behavior
    on preference. In R. B. Adams, Jr., N. Ambady, K. Nakayama & S. Shimojo (Eds.)
    The Science of Social Vision. New York, Oxford U. Press.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2008) A functional explanation for
    the effects of visual exposure on preference. Perception 37: 1510-1519.


Bare skin, blood, emotion, and the evolution of primate color vision
The primate face undergoes color modulations (such as blushing or blanching), some which may be selected for signaling and some which may be an inevitable consequence of underlying physiological modulations. Because for highly social animals like most primates, one of the most important kinds of object to be competent at perceiving and discriminating is other members of one's own species, we hypothesized that primate color vision has been selected for discriminating the short term spectral modulations on the skin of conspecifics, these modulations providing useful information about the current state or mood of another conspecific. Here we show that for the two dimensions of skin spectral variation in the short term, the dimension due to the fraction of blood in the skin corresponds approximately to the blue-yellow opponent channel (more blood ==> bluer), and the other dimension due to oxygen saturation of the blood corresponds approximately to the red-green opponent channel (greater oxygenation ==> redder). Trichromats, but not dichromats, are therefore sensitive to both dimensions of skin color variation, and, more specifically, the wavelength sensitivities of the M and L cones for trichromatic primates are near-optimal for sensing modulations of oxygen saturation. Also, because skin color modulation cannot be seen on a furry face, trichromatic primates tend to have bare faces. I talk about this in THE VISION REVOLUTION (Benbella, 2009). See
Parade I, Parade II, UlrikeFeigl, Crooked Timber, MSNBC, TIME, Radiolab, Phil Inquirer, Scientific American, Road & Track, CNN, Irish Times, Professional Lighting Design, Reuters, New Scientist, Financial Times, Scientific American, Scientific American mention, Time Magazine, Discover Magazine, Rensselaer Magazine, Bild der Wissenschaft (roughly a German Scientific American), Daily Telegraph, Daily Telegraph (Santa), American Scientist, BoingBoing, ABC News, Pasadena Star News, BBC Wildlife Magazine, Bluesci (Cambridge Science Magazine), Ingenioren, Der Standard, The Times of London, Rhein Zeitung, Kagaku (Japanese science magazine), Nikkei Science, CNet, Forbes, CBC News, The Independent (London), Best Friends Magazine, Die Presse, Ego-Net, GEO Magazine, 3SAT, Die Welt, Iran Daily, 123, Arkadas, Ceske Novinky, Asahi Shimbun, CNet, 24 ThoiSu, Impact, Fugle og Natur, Anthropology.net, Complexity Digest, Softpedia News, Bill Benzon, David Bradley, Erkenntnisse des Neuromarketing, The Telegraph (Calcutta, India), Skeptically Speaking, Something You Should Know, Nana 10, Nana (navel) (English translation), and Caltech News for news stories about this (some which were picked up and translated worldwide, e.g., the New Scientist, Reuters, Pasadena Star, and Caltech News stories). Also see CBC "As It Happens" for a radio interview (go 22 minutes into RealAudio clip), and here is the script of a public radio show called Loh Down on Science that covered this research (and here is the RealAudio clip). See also Science Magazine for some controversy. See also 2AI Labs technology based on them: MSNBC.
    - [ not available ] Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2008) Social color vision.
    In R. B. Adams, Jr., N. Ambady, K. Nakayama & S. Shimojo (Eds.)
    The Science of Social Vision. New York, Oxford U. Press.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA, Zhang Q & Shimojo S (2006) Bare skin,
    blood, and the evolution of primate color vision. Biology Letters 2: 217-221.


A general theory of mammalian visual cortex organization
The part of the primate visual cortex responsible for the recognition of objects is parcelled into about a dozen areas organized somewhat hierarchically (the region is called the ventral stream). Why are there approximately this many hierarchical levels for object recognition? Here I put forth a generic information-processing hierarchical model for visual object recognition, and show how the total number of neurons required depends on the number of hierarchical levels and the complexity of visual objects that must be recognized. Because the recognition of written words appears to occur in a similar part of inferotemporal cortex as other visual objects, the complexity of written words may be similar to that of other visual objects; for this reason, I measure the complexity of written words, and use it as an approximate estimate of the complexity of visual objects more generally. I then show that the information-processing hierarchy that accommodates visual objects of that complexity possesses the minimum number of neurons when the number of hierarchical levels is approximately 15 and when the sizes of areas decrease exponentially with level, each level on average approximately 1.25 times larger than the level above it. I show that these optimal properties are close to those found in the primate ventral stream.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2006) The optimal human ventral stream
    from estimates of the complexity of visual objects. Biological Cybernetics 94: 415-426.


The economical organization of the lexicon
Good definitions consist of words that are more basic than the defined word. There are, however, many ways of satisfying this desideratum. For example, at one extreme, there could be a small set of atomic words that are used to define all other words; i.e., there would be just two hierarchical levels. Alternatively, there could be very many hierarchical levels, where a small set of atomic words is used to define a larger set of words, and these are, in turn, used to define the next hierarchically higher set of words, and so on to the top level of very specific, complex words. Importantly, some possible organizations are more economical than others in the amount of space required to record all the definitions. Here I ask, How economical are dictionaries? Here I present a simple model for an optimal set of definitions, predicting on the order of 7 hierarchical levels. I test the model via measurements from WordNet and the Oxford English Dictionary, and find that the organization of each possesses the signature features expected for an economical dictionary. See a longer blurb of this
here. Some stories in the press (many which were picked up all over the world): Scientific American, Tendencias (Spain), RPI News, Red Orbit, New Kerala, United Press International.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2008) Economically organized hierarchies in WordNet
    and the Oxford English Dictionary. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research 9: 214-228.


Why letters are shaped the way they are
Are there empirical regularities in the shapes of letters and other human visual signs, and if so, what are the selection pressures underlying these regularities? To examine this, we determined a wide variety of topologically distinct contour configurations, and examined the relative frequency of these configuration types across non-logographic writing systems, Chinese writing, and non-linguistic symbols. Our first, and main, result is that these three classes of human visual sign possess a similar signature in their configuration distribution, suggesting that there are underlying principles governing the shapes of human visual signs. Second, we provide evidence that the shapes of visual signs are selected to be easily seen, at the expense of the motor system. Finally, we provide evidence to support an ecological hypothesis that visual signs have been culturally selected to match the kinds of conglomerations of contours found in natural scenes, because that is what we have evolved to be good at visually processing. I talk about this in THE VISION REVOLUTION (Benbella, 2009). There are press stores about it at the
Dana Foundation, Nana 10, The New Yorker, Sciam Mind, The Atlantic, Sciam, Barnes and Noble review, NY Times (review of Dehaene's book, discussing my research as "most interesting"), WSJ (discussed in review of Dehaene's book), Daily Telegraph, Rensselaer Magazine, USA Today, Newsweek (print and online), NRC Handelsblad, Cahiers de Science et Vie, Australian Broadcasting Company, Mokslo Lietuva, Live Science, Suddeutsche Zeitung, Columbia Tribune, De Morgen, Softpedia News, Svoboda News, USA Today Tech Space, Netinfo.bg Bulgaria, Internet Haber, Nikolaev, Something You Should Know, Engineering and Science Magazine, Idaho Statesman, Philadelphia Inquirer, Caltech News and EurekAlert. Some of these news stories were picked up worldwide, such as Live Science (e.g., picked up by Fox News and MSNBC), Caltech News and EurekAlert. See CURJ for an article by undergraduate Qiong Zhang in the Caltech undergraduate research magazine.
    - [ PDF reprint] Changizi MA, Zhang Q, Ye H & Shimojo S (2006) The structures of letters
    and symbols throughout human history are selected to match those found in objects
    in natural scenes. The American Naturalist 167: E117-E139. [Featured Article, May 2006]


How bigger brains are made
This research answers why the neocortex is folded, why the number of synapses per neuron increases, why white matter scales up disproportionately quickly, why the number of cortical areas increases, why soma and axon radius increase, and more. The theory explaining these features posits that the neocortex is well-connected in a wire-optimal fashion. The paper also estimates the network diameter of the neocortex to be about 2. Newer research appears in Section 1.1 of my book. Appearing soon is a contributed chapter (see below) in Evolution of Nervous Systems. Also, a new paper concentrating on scaling of parcellation and area-area connectivity has appeared in BBE. Press about this research has appeared in
Sciam, Les limites de l'intelligence, LiveScience, and Beautiful Brain.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2009) Brain scaling laws. In Squire LR (ed.)
    New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Oxford, Academic Press.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2007) Scaling the brain and its connections.
    In Kaas JH (ed.) Evolution of Nervous Systems. Oxford, Elsevier.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2005) Parcellation and area-area connectivity
    as a function of neocortex size. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 66: 88-98.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2001) Principles underlying mammalian neocortical scaling.
    Biol Cybern 84: 207-215.


Patterns across writing systems, and what it tells us about visual recognition
A writing system is a visual notation system wherein a repertoire of marks, or strokes, is used to build a repertoire of characters. Are there any commonalities across writing systems concerning the rules governing how strokes combine into characters? In an effort to answer this question we examined how strokes combine to make characters in more than 100 writing systems over human history, ranging from about 10 to 200 characters, and including numerals, abjads, abugidas, alphabets and syllabaries from five major taxa---Ancient Near-Eastern, European, Middle Eastern, South Asian, Southeast Asian---as well as invented writing systems. We discovered underlying similarities in two fundamental respects. (1) The number of strokes per character is approximately three, independent of the number of characters in the writing system; numeral systems are the exception, having on average only two strokes per character. (2) Characters are approximately 50% redundant, independent of writing system size; intuitively, this means that a character's identity can be determined even when half its strokes are removed. Because writing systems are under selective pressure to have characters that are easy for the visual system to recognize and for the motor system to write, these fundamental commonalities may be a fingerprint of mechanisms underlying the visuo-motor system. I talk about this in THE VISION REVOLUTION (Benbella, 2009). See
New Scientist, Natural History Magazine, Spiegel, Jay Ingram (from Discovery Channel), Wissenschaft, Wissenschaft-Online, ORF, Arzte Zeitung, San Diego Union-Tribune, GEO, Net Hirlap, and Asahi Shimbun for some of the news stories about our paper.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Shimojo S (2005) Character complexity and redundancy in writing
    systems over human history. Proc Roy Soc Lond B 272: 267-275.


Latency correction and a general theory of illusions
Perceiving-the-present is the theoretical framework positing that the function of the visual system is to generate percepts representative not of the scene that generated the proximal stimulus, but of the scene that will be present at the time the percept actually occurs about 100 msec later, thereby compensating for the neural delay. To achieve this, the visual system must utilize ecological regularities to "guess" what is about to happen in the next moment. One of the most common kinds of ecological regularity is forward movement, and this research demonstrates that the visual system responds with appropriate latency-correction mechanisms when cues suggest forward movement. On the basis of this it is possible to predict a pattern of illusions over two dozen classes of stimuli. See this
poster for a very brief look at the table unifying and explaining more than 50 kinds of illusion. In earlier work I showed how this idea explains the classical geometrical illusions, in particular. See also Chapter 2 of my first book. I talk about this in THE VISION REVOLUTION (Benbella, 2009). See a popular article in Gehirn & Geist that touches on this, as well as press concerning the unifying theory as follows: TED, National Geographic's Brain Games, Mother Nature Network, Welt, ABC News, The New York Times, Spiegel, Scientific American, Rensselaer Magazine, 3sat Nano TV (German television show) [version w/out voice-over], 3sat (text for Nano television piece), FOX News Channel (live television interview), Albany's Channel 10 News (television interview), Live Science (picked up in Yahoo News, MSNBC, Fox News, and worldwide), Scientific American Mind, Metrolic, Newsweek(ru), Sync (Dutch), BoingBoing, Lufthansa Exclusive, RPI News, Caltech News, Newsland (Russian), Science Daily, Times of India, MSN India, Technocrat, Tarakosh Josh!, Lawrence Journal-World, TechRevu, DVICE, Technovelgy, Tennis Korea (reprint from ChoSun), INews24, Pasadena Weekly, Reporter Online, BrainBlogger, EarthSky (4 min in) (illusions), Skeptically Speaking, MSN (de) .
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2008) The trade-off between speed and complexity.
    Commentary on Nijhawan R, Visual Prediction: Psychophysics and neurophysiology
    of compensation for time delays. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31: 203.
    - [ not available ] Changizi MA, Hsieh A, Nijhawan R, Kanai R & Shimojo S.
    Perceiving-the-present and a unified theory of illusions. In R. Nijhawan & B. Khurana (Eds.),
    Problems of Space and Time in Perception and Action. Cambridge U. Press..
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA, Hsieh A, Nijhawan R, Kanai R & Shimojo S (2008)
    Perceiving-the-present and a systematization of illusions Cognitive Science 32: 459-503.
    - [ Winzipped PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Widders D (2002) Latency correction explains
    the classical geometrical illusions. Perception 31: 1241-1262.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2001) 'Perceiving the present' as a framework for ecological
    explanations of the misperception of projected angle and angular size. Perception 30: 195-208.


A general theoretical framework for complex, behavioral networks
In this research direction, I demonstrate that---and explain why---behavioral networks of all kinds tend to follow similar principles for (1) how nodes locally combine to implement network structures, (2) how structures combine globally to implement network-level behaviors, (3) how connectivity increases in larger networks, and (4) how larger networks become increasingly parcellated into distinct subregions. In the earlier papers, I consider the manner in which languages (e.g., English over the last 800 years, and child development of phonemes, words and sentences), bird song, and other such systems increase in complexity. In no case do there appear to be universal languages, in the sense that a single set of component, or word, types suffices for the construction of arbitrarily many expressions, or sentences. Also, I provide evidence that although bird song seems combinatorial, it is not. Finally, I show that, even though human language grammar does not constrain the length of sentences, there appear to be combinatorial limits to actual sentences, and this drives the vocabulary growth rate of the English language over time. See also Chapter 1 of my book. Later papers demonstrate that---and explain why---the relationship between number of node types and network size is a power law for many kinds of network, including networks of cells, neurons, ants, employees, and even Legos. We show that networks do not use universal languages (i.e., a fixed number of node types from which all network complexity may be achieved), but, instead, networks have invariant combinatorial degrees (i.e., the degree of combinatorialness allowed in building functional expressions from nodes). The scaling features reveal that human-constructed networks have low combinatorial degrees (on the order of two), whereas natural networks have high combinatorial degrees (from 5 to 15, depending on the kind of network). We also apply the theoretical ideas to ecosystems, providing for the first time a connection between food web features (food chain length) and species-area plot scaling exponents: archipelagos with food chain length L are expected to have scaling exponents of roughly 1/L. See also applications of these ideas to hierarchical evolution, with Daniel McShea. The most recent paper, in Complexity, provides a unifying framework for understanding four "correlates of behavioral networks" (this paper was listed in
Complexity Digest), and covered by WIRED, Telegraph, Discover.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & He D (2005) Four correlates of complex behavioral networks:
    differentiation, behavior, connectivity and compartmentalization. Complexity 10: 13-40.
    - [ Winzipped PDF reprint ] McShea D & Changizi MA (2003) Three puzzles in hierarchical evolution.
    Integr Compar Biol 43: 74-81.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA, McDannald MA & Widders D (2002) Scaling of differentiation
    in networks: Nervous systems, organisms, ant colonies, ecosystems, businesses, universities,
    cities, electronic circuits, and Legos. J Theor Biol 218: 215-237.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2001) Universal laws for hierarchical systems. Comments
    Theor Biol
    6: 25-75.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2001) Universal scaling laws for hierarchical complexity in
    languages, organisms, behaviors and other combinatorial systems. J Theor Biol 211: 277-295.


Behavioral complexity in mammals
In this research I reveal the relationships between behavioral repertoire size, encephalization, and number of muscles in mammals. I demonstrate that muscles are, indeed, used in a combinatorial manner to implement behaviors---something not following from the mere fact that behaviors are built from multiple muscles. The research also reveals that behavioral repertoire size correlates well with encephalization, something nearly everyone believes, but, to my knowledge, no one has measured among mammals. A compilation of behavioral repertoire sizes for 28 species across six non-mammalian classes may be found in Chapter 1 of
THE BRAIN FROM 25,000 FEET. The paper also shows, via new data, how behavioral complexity increases during the ontogeny of rat.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2003) The relationship between number of muscles, behavioral
    repertoire size, and encephalization in mammals. J Theor Biol 220: 157-168.


Why animals (and other biological entities) have as many limbs as they do
This research shows that there is a particular quantitative relationship between limb number and body-to-limb proportion across many animal phyla (for animals with radially, not ventrally, projected limbs). Namely, animals with long limbs relative to their body size tend to have on the order of six limbs, and as an animal's limbs become shorter relative to body size, the number of limbs increases in a particular quantitative fashion. I explain the relationship in terms of an optimality hypothesis. The idea is fleshed out in Chapter 1 of
THE BRAIN FROM 25,000 FEET, and raw data are provided. Check out the interactive animal limb demo, which helps to visualize the relationship between number of limbs and body-to-limb proportion. See some discussion at Science.ca. See Tubitak Bilim ve Teknik , Clickideia, and Life's Little Mysteries for press stories on it. A second paper, in progress, demonstrates an inverse-square law for spherical biological structures with limbs, such as viruses and pollen.
    - [ Not yet available ] Changizi MA & Hsieh A. An inverse-square law relating number of spikes
    to normalized spike length in viruses and pollen. In progress.
    - [ Winzipped PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (2001) The economy of the shape of limbed animals.
    Biol Cybern 84: 23-29.


The shapes of neurons and arteries are volume-optimal
We demonstrate that neuronal and arterial trees (as well as some other kinds) have volume-optimal geometries. We treat source (e.g., soma) and leaf (e.g., synapse) locations as fixed, and ask, of all possible tree shapes reaching from the source to the leaves, which utilizes the least volume, and how do natural arbors compare to these volume-optimal ones? We demonstrate that a variety of neuronal trees and coronary arterial trees have these volume-optimal geometries. Furthermore, we argue that it is obtained via a simple self-organizing, fluid-mechanical mechanisms. We also show for the first time that neuron branch diameters conform to Murray's Law, where the cube of the trunk segment diameter is equal to the sum of the cubes of the diameters of the children.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Cherniak C (2000) Modeling the large-scale geometry of
    human coronary arteries. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 78: 603-611.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Cherniak C, Changizi MA & Kang D (1999) Large-scale optimization of
    neuron arbors. Phys. Rev. E 59: 6001-6009.


Decision theoretic approaches to perception
Does thirst make you more likely to think you see water? Tales of thirsty desert travelers and oasis mirages are consistent with our intuitions that appetitive state can influence what we see in the world. Yet, there has been surprisingly little scrutiny of this appetitive modulation of perception. We tested whether dehydrated subjects would be biased towards perceptions of transparency, a common property of water. We found that thirsty subjects have a greater tendency to perceive transparency in ambiguous stimuli, revealing an ecologically appropriate modulation of the visual system by a basic appetitive motive. This also provides support for the Bayesian approach to visual perception because, taking the Bayesian approach seriously, there ought to be perceptual consequences to modifying the utilities without modifying the probabilities, something we show in the paper by varying the observer's appetitive state. See
Trends in Cognitive Sciences and The Psychologist , HF365, and an oblique reference in Science Magazine.
    - [ Winzipped PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Hall WG (2001) Thirst modulates a perception.
    Perception 30: 1489-1497.


Learning hunger and thirst
Experiments with rats were conducted demonstrating that hunger and thirst behavior (i.e., the appetitive food and water seeking behaviors) are learned: Without food experience when food-deprived or water experience when water-deprived, deprived rats do not seek food or water, respectively, despite having experience with food and water when not deprived.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA, McGehee RMF & Hall WG (2002) Evidence that appetitive
    responses for dehydration and food-deprivation are learned. Physiol Behav 75: 295-304.


Riddle of induction
I give a kind of solution to the riddle of induction. Concerning a candidate set of hypotheses from which we would like to learn the probable one, and for which we currently have absolutely no data, if you tell me what properties you deem these hypotheses to have (this set of properties comprises your "conceptual framework"), then my theory will tell you what prior probabilities you ought to place on the hypotheses in that set (based on several symmetry-related principles). For a more recent presentation of the ideas, as well as applications to innateness in the brain, see Chapter 3 of
THE BRAIN FROM 25,000 FEET.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA & Barber T (1998) A paradigm-based solution to the riddle
    of induction. Synthese 117: 419-484.


Vagueness of natural language
Here I provide an explanation for why natural language words are vague. I show that vagueness is something with which any finite, computational language-user must contend. (Vagueness is directly related to the sorites paradox, or the paradox of the heap. Premise 1: One grain of sand cannot make a heap. Premise 2: Adding one grain of sand can never turn a non-heap into a heap. Conclusion: There are no heaps. Clearly a false conclusion, and thus the paradox. Because the heap paradox relies on the vagueness of 'heap' to make it paradoxical, this research also serves as a resolution of this ancient paradox.) For my most recent work on the idea, see Chapter 4 of
THE BRAIN FROM 25,000 FEET. The conference paper below differs from my other vagueness work in that it presents mathematical notions concerned with vagueness, such as that there are multiple degrees to which the borderline region of a vague word can be computationally ineliminable.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (1998) Motivation for a new semantics for vagueness.
    Second Irish Workshop in Formal Methods, Cork, Ireland.
    - [ No reprint ] Changizi MA (1999) Vagueness and computation. Acta Analytica 14: 39-45.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (1999) Vagueness, rationality and undecidability: A theory of
    why there is vagueness. Synthese 120: 345-374.


Mathematical inevitability of the eureka, or Aha!, phenomenon
There are some problems for which it is possible to know how close one is to solving it. I show that there is a tower of such "monitorable" problems, each requiring more resources to monitor. And then I show that there are computable problems that are not monitorable at all; the only way to solve these is via having a "eureka" moment. In addition to the published math paper below, I have an old unpublished non-mathematical manuscript that can be linked
here.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (1996) Self-monitoring machines and an w^w-hierarchy
    of loops. Information and Computation 128: 127-138.


Ultimate computational limits on learning
Natural notions of "learning with error" are introduced, and the ultimate computational limits of learning studied in light of the new notions.
    - [ PDF reprint ] Changizi MA (1997) Learning with natural imprecision. Int J Found Comp
    Sci
    8: 409-424.
    - [ No reprint ] Changizi MA (1996) Function identification from noisy data with recursive
    error bounds. Erkenntnis 45: 91-102.